Objective: To initiate appropriate process of the management for cataract patients to conform to the context of community hospitals. The study employed integrated cataract management so that the patients could get the appropriate treatment and better vision within 1-2 months.
Methods: To study the integrated cataract management (ICM) system, the author studied patients who underwent the cataract surgery in 5 community hospitals in Roi-Et and Khon-Khaen provinces. The ICM team consists of ophthalmologists, ophthalmic nurses and health care personnel in the hospitals. The study took 3 months.
Results: 1,074 of 2,800 patients were included in this study . 85.9% got better vision without severe infective complication. Less than 3% could not get compatible intraocular lens implantation. The patients could start normally active life within 2 weeks and more patients could be treated.
Conclusion: It was found that the ICM is effective and can establish a strong team work and effective personal development. In addition, the ICM can be employed for the sake of ophthalmologic public health in other areas confronting the problems similar to those of this study. However, it is recommended that the context of the study area should be taken into consideration when the ICM would be employed.
The Republic of Mongolia is a land lock country in Asia. It bordered on the north by Russia and on the east, south, and west by China. Mongolia has the total land area of 1,564,116 square kilometers. Though the country is a large area, it has a total population of only 2,612,900. Majority of population are of mongol (86%) descent Kazakh (6%), and other more than 20 ethnic groups (such as Tuvan, Tungus etc.). The country has extreme climate, most of the country is hot in the summer and extremely cold in the winter. The temperature ranges from minus 30 degree celcius in the winter to above 25 degree in summer. Large part of the country is desert. The country has changed from central planning to market economy from 1990. The gross domestic product (GDP) per capita is 1,470 USD.
The capital and largest city of Mongolia is Ulaanbaatar. About one third of the population in Mongolia live in Ulaanbaatar. Apart from the capital city, Mongolia is divided into 21 provinces. The country has a unique condition that makes the providing of health care extremely difficult. The country has a very large area and small number of population. At least one fifth of the population are primarily herders. These people move around with their animals during the year. This makes the providing the eye care even
The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is a country in South East Asia. The country is bordered on the
north by China, on the west be Laos PDR and Cambodia. Its area is 331,690 square kilometers.
Hanoi, the capital city, locates to the northern part of the country. Ho Chi Minh City is the largest city and
locates to the southern part.
Vietnam is divided into 61 provinces groupedin 7 regions: North Mountain and Midland, Red River Delta, North Central Coast, South Central Coast, Central Highlands, North Eastern South Region, and Mekong River Delta.
Vietnam has a population of 83.5 million (2005 estimate). The southern part of the country is more urbanized than the northern part. Most of the people live in rural area. The population growth rate is 1.04%.
The Republic of Philippines is a country made up of 7,107 islands in the Pacific Ocean. The country has total area of about 300,000 square kilometers. Manila is the capital and the largest city in the country. Philippines is a democratic country. The government is divided into national and local sectors. Both national and local governments are elected by the people. Local autonomy in the provinces, cities, and municipalities are mandated by law.
Philippines is divided into 16 regions, 81 provinces, 136 cities, 1,494 municipalities, and 41,995 Barangays. The population in Philippines increases rapidly from 76.5 million in the year 2000 to 92 million in the year 2009. The annual population growth rate is over 2% each year. Children aged 0-14 years account for 37% of the total population, and elderly age-group (65 years or older) account for 3.8%. The working age-group (15 to 64 years of age) accounts for about 59% of the population. Half (about 52%) of the population live in rural areas. The average annual income of a family is about US$ 3,023 (2006).
There are 1,771 hospitals in Philippines. Of these hospitals, 40% are public hospitals and 60% are private hospitals. The overall bed capacity of the hospitals are 92,070 beds. 52% of the beds belong to
public hospitals. There are average of 2 Barangay
Malaysia is a country in South East Asia with the total land area of 330,252 square kilometers. Malaysia federation composes of 13 states and 3 federal territories. The country can be divided into 2 main regions: West Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia) and East Malaysia. West Malaysia comprises of 11 states. East Malaysia comprises of Sarawak and Sabah in Borneo island. East and West Malaysia are separated by some 650 km of the South China Sea. The capital city is Kuala Lumpur in West Malaysia.
The total population in Malaysia is 26.6 million. Children less than 15 years of age accounts for 32.4% of the population, and the elderly age group (65 years or older) accounts for 4.3%. The country has annual population growth rate of 1.5%. Crude birth rate is 18.7 per 1,000 population, and crude death rate is 4.5 per 1,000 population. The life expectancy at birth are 71.8 years for males, and 76.3 years for females (2006 statistics).
Cambodia is a country located in southeast Asia. The country is bordered on the north by Thailand and Laos, on the east by Vietnam, on the south the Gulf of Thailand, and on the west by Thailand. The country covers a total area of 181,035 square kilometers. It is divided into 22 provinces and 4 municipals. The population of Cambodia is 14 millions (Census Bureau 2007). The population structure is, children (0-14 years) 33.2%, working age-group (15-64 years) 63.2% and elderly age-group (>65 years) 3.6%. The birth rate is 25.7 per 1,000 population (2008). The death rate is 8.16 per 1,000 population. The annual population growth rate is 3%. The life expectancy rate in Cambodia is 61.7 years (59.7 years in males and 63.8 years in females). The infant mortality rate is 98 per 1,000 population. Eighty percent of the population live in rural area. The gross national product (GNP) per capita is 354 US$ (2004). The annual government expenditures on health care per capita is 4.0 US$.
Laos People?s Democratic Republic (Laos PDR) is a landlocked country in the southeastern Asia. The country is bounded on the north by China, on the east by Vietnam, on the south by Cambodia, and on the west by Thailand and Myanmar. Laos has the total land area of 236,800 square-kilometers, and population of 5.8 million (2007 census). Eighty percent of the population live in the rural area. The economy is mainly on agriculture. The average gross domestic product (GDP) per capita is 700 US$.
Laos is divided into 17 provinces, which are subdivided into 139 districts and 9,113 villages. Major cities include Vientiane, the capital city, with population of 640,000 (2000 estimate), (Louangphrabang, the former royal capital city with population around 68,000 (1995 estimate), Savannakh?t with population around 97,000 (1995 estimate), and Pakx? with population around 47,000 (1995 estimate).
การตรวจคัดกรองโรค Retinopathy of Prematurity มีประวัติความเป็นมาที่น่าสนใจทั้งที่เป็นแนวทางที่ใช้ในต่างประเทศและในประเทศไทย การค้นคว้าหาข้อมูลที่เกี่ยวข้องกับการตรวจคัดกรองโรค ROP จะช่วยทำให้เข้าใจถึงธรรมชาติของโรค และนำความรู้มาใช้ในการตรวจคัดกรองทารกเกิดก่อนกำหนดได้อย่างมีประสิทธิภาพ